Soil thesis

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The highlanders preferred to live among those who spoke their language and shared their customs, and usually settled in groups (Myer, 1957). Yet, almost immediately, scotch-Irish slowly mixed in to the highland settlements and continued to do so over the last half of the 18th century. There were so many macDonalds in the cape fear region that, during the American revolution, the macDonalds, who were loyal to the Crown of England, attempted a march to the sea, but were defeated at moores Creek. This was known for generations as The Insurrection of the Clan MacDonald (Graham, 1956) When Samuel Johnson made his famous journey through the highlands with James Boswell in 1773, he remarked in his journal that there was an epidemick of desire of wandering which spreads. Also in his journal, johnson states that, wherever he went in the highlands, people were contemplating emigration to America. The reverend Alexander Pope in 1774 wrote that half the population of caithness would have left for America if they could have obtained the shipping (Myer, 1957). James Boswell tells of people on the Isle of skye on October 2, 1774 who were performing a dance called America.

My research uncovered estimates anywhere from 6,000 to over 50,000. The writer believes the number of 30,000 by garnett is most accurate, if not slightly overstated. Lower estimates seem to leave out departures that list no departure port, but clearly left Scotland, wallpaper or left Ireland or England as a last port and were populated with mostly Scottish surnames. The highest seem to accidentally have combined two estimates for the same e highlanders settled in the sand hills area near the upper Cape fear river of the coastal Plain, which ran inland to about 100 miles from the ocean. Since the vast majority of Highlanders that settled in this area had come from an agricultural society, and because the land was plentiful and fertile, most became farmers. The main trading town in the sand hills area at this time was Cross Creek. It was established in 1746 (Ashe, 1908) about 90 miles up the cape fear river, close to the merge of the cape fear river and the Cross Creek. In 1762, campbellton was established near Cross Creek. In 1778, the towns were combined. After the revolution, in 1783, the name Cross Creek was changed to fayetteville, boda after the French general, lafayette who assisted the Americans in defeating the British.

soil thesis

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A number of other Scots made their homes in the mohawk valley of New York, new Jersey, and the caribbean islands such as Barbados. And, smaller numbers of Scots were found in all the 13 states. The migration of Scottish Highlanders, in particular, to north Carolina began in about 1729 (Conner, 1919) and grew steadily until the outbreak of the American revolution. The first few Highlanders appear to have settled in the cape fear area in 1732. The first large group of Highlanders settled here in 1739, numbered 350, and were from Argyllshire (Myer, 1957). The fastest growth paperless appears to have been just before the revolution in the early 1770s. According to the earl of Selkirk, by the end of the 18th century, the settlement of Scottish Highlanders in North Carolina was the largest on the north American Continent (Myer, 1957). Thomas Garnett, in his tour, published in 1800, estimated in 1800 that 30,000 Highlanders had immigrated to America between 17, alone (Adams, 1919.

soil thesis

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French (Huguenots) French immigrants, who were called the huguenots, also found their way to colonial North Carolina. These French Protestants had to migrate because they were persecuted by the French king louis xiv. French Huguenots immigrated mainly to new York and south Carolina, but some found their way into north Carolina. They assimilated easily by learning English and integrating with the other groups in the community (meyer 1957). Scottish Highlanders in Carolina At the time of the first federal census in the United States, (1790) people of Scottish (including the Scotch-Irish) origins made up more than six percent of the population, numbering about 260,000. According to this census, pennsylvania, virginia and North Carolina had the highest proportion improve of Scottish stock among their populations. The settlements of the highlanders were the cape fear river and its tributaries in North Carolina, south Carolina, and georgia.

The constant warfare in these parts of Europe made immigrants drawn towards the north Atlantic colonies. The germans settled mainly in Pennsylvania and by 1790, they represented more than one fourth of the total population. There were also some german settlements in Maryland, north and south Carolina and New York, but these numbers were small compared to the german population in Pennsylvania. The following information explaining German immigration to north Carolina is from historian guion Griffis Johnson (Johnson, 1937 following the same route traveled by the Scotch-Irish, several thousand Germans also came into north Carolina between 17like the Scotch-Irish, they were thrifty and fervently religious, but instead. According to the federal Census of 1790, one of four Highland families had slaves and, of those who owned slaves, the average was almost 5 slaves per family (Myer, 1957). In North Carolina, enslaved Africans were also about one out of every four persons (regardless of ethnicity north Carolina census Data total 393,751 Free white persons 288,204 (72) All other free persons 4,975 (12) Slaves 100,572 (26) It is also interesting to note that. (If you combine the Scots and Scot-Irish of this census, the total would.4.) Most all Africans were enslaved and the vast majority were in the south in states like north Carolina (meyer 1957).

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soil thesis

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Lowlander names appear in pre-1700 Carolina records and the first governor of the colony, william Drummond, was a lowlander (Myer, 1957). Scotch-Irish and Irish, to the west and east of these highland settlements were large settlements of Scotch-Irish. One area directly to the west of the cape fear settlements was even called Scotch-Irish Mesopotamia. Most of the Scotch-Irish landed at Philadelphia and came south into north Carolina as early as 1740. After 1750, a steady stream flowed into the colony. In 1751 governor Gabriel Johnston of North Carolina reported to the board of Trade that Inhabitants flock in here daily, mostly from Pennsylvania and other parts of America.

And some expository directly from Europe, they commonly seat themselves toward the west and have got near the mountains (Saunders, 188690). The Scotch-Irish were Protestant, as compared to the smaller number of Irish in Carolina, who were catholic. In the seventeenth century a large amount of the Irish immigrants were situated in the west Indies, but in the eighteenth century there were Irish settlements in North America. Pennsylvania was in 1790 the colony that had most persons of Irish nationality, but it was mainly in the nineteenth century that the mass immigration of Irish Catholics to north America started. Germans The german immigrants came mainly from the areas of the river Rhine, the pre industrial south-west parts of Germany, but also from the german speaking areas of Switzerland.

In the seventeenth century they mainly settled the east seaboard areas in the colonies. In the new England colony all the states had ninety percent or more population of English and Welsh origin. In 1790 the state of Massachusetts had the largest number of people, 93, of English and Welsh ethnic background. In Pennsylvania, english and Welsh inhabitants made up about 58 of the total population. In the southern colonies, the British and Welsh immigrants were the majority, and in North Carolina they were 56 of the total population.


Though the governing of the colonies was mainly in English hands, there were several British government leaders from Scotland and Ulster. The culture of North Carolina was decidedly British, mainly English. The other ethnic groups maintained strong cultures within their own contained communities, but had marginal influence, at first, on English-dominated rule and society. However, little by little, the influence of the Scotch-Irish and Highland Scots in particular became evident, as we shall see later in this paper. Scottish Lowlanders, there were lowlanders in this area before 1700. Tracing Lowlanders is more difficult than tracing Highlanders because the lowlanders were much more willing to disperse themselves within the various communities than were the clansmen. However, there are clear records of Lowlanders in North Carolina before 1700.

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According good to the United States Historical Census Data base (ushcdb) (2002 the ethnic populations in the American Colonies of 1775 were: English.7, african.0, scot-Irish.8, german.9. Scottish.6, dutch.7, french.4, swedish.6. Other.3 (note: Combined, the total of Scots and Scot-Irish in this census.4.). The following sections give some information about the major ethnic groups in colonial North Carolina (all the ones in the list above except Dutch and Swedish). English and Welsh, the main English immigration to north America began in the early seventeenth century. From this time until the revolution, the English were the largest group in the colonies and certainly in North Carolina. Due to industrialization and less religious persecution there had been an improvement in living standards in England and this led to a relative decline in the English emigration the eighteenth century. There were English immigrants in all the north American colonies and in the west Indies.

soil thesis

There is a wallpaper lot of confusion in early American history regarding the similarities or differences of the Scots. This makes it difficult to get a clear picture of Scottish immigration, though there are many clues that can help unravel the mess. Highlanders, lowlanders, and Scotch-Irish are often grouped together as Scots. Sometimes the Irish and Scotch-Irish also get mistakenly mixed. A great number of Scotch-Irish (also often called Ulster-Scots migrated to north America. The Scotch-Irish, highland Scots, and Lowland Scots became a dominant ethnic group in the colonies. The largest influx of Irish into north Carolina was in the form of Protestants - largely Presbyterian but also Anglican - who became known as "Scotch-Irish" or "Scots Irish since their ancestors originated in Scotland. (Powell, 1999) The term "Scotch-Irish" is an Americanism, generally unknown in Scotland and Ireland, and rarely used by British historians. In American usage, it refers to people of Scottish descent who, having lived for a time in the north of Ireland, migrated in considerable numbers to the American colonies in the eighteenth century.

north Carolina and south Carolina. Farmers from Virginia migrated to settle in North Carolina because it had a warm climate and good soil. Most of North Carolina became plantations. Colonial North Carolina had three geographic regions: the coastal Plain, the Appalachian piedmont, and the Appalachian mountains. These regions still exist, today. The Immigrants of Colonial North Carolina. In addition to the highlanders, there were several other ethnic groups who had migrated to colonial North Carolina from Europe and Africa including English, lowlanders, Scotch-Irish, germans, welsh, Swiss, and Africans. While there seem to be no accurate records of the exact numbers of each group, it does appear that the English made up the vast majority of European immigrants, followed by the Scottiesh (Scotch-Irish, lowlanders, and Highlanders and far fewer Irish, germans, Africans, Swiss, French.

How many were there? Why did they leave scotland for such treacherous, wilderness territory? The main thrust of this section of the study is to follow Scottish Highlanders and their oliver music into the north American colonies. But, it is also necessary to trace lowlanders and Scotch-Irish, as many musical characteristics of their folk songs will be found to be similar to the highland. True, there are differences, but, together, they all form a celtic influence on the new American music of the late 18th century. Brief History of the founding of North Carolina. Giovanni da verrazonoa was the first European explorer of North Carolina in 1524.

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Scots to colonial North Carolina before 1775. U.S.I.C.s Project, m usical, u nique. S cottish, i dentifiable, c haracteristic, scots to colonial North Carolina before 1775. Society and Culture in Colonial Cape fear Valley. If one wants to trace Scottish folk song melodies from Scotland into colonial North America, it seems logical to locate the largest concentrations of immigrant Scottish populations and to attempt to understand their culture, the cultures in which they found themselves, how they interacted with. Approximately.5 million Scots have immigrated to America (Gormley, 2000). Today, the state of North Carolina has more citizens of Scottish ancestry than any other state or country, including Scotland (Highlander, 2000). Where did those early immigrant Scots settle in North America, and when?


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