S newspapers in the land. This shows that the second narrator comes along at certain points to review inform the reader of what is happening to jurgis and the world around him in the meantime. During the course of the novel, sinclair puts forth a plethora of themes, some major and some minor. One major theme is materialism and unyielding competition have made 1900?s America into a metaphorical jungle. Theme is generally regarded as the main way to put across an idea, so sinclair uses this to its full extent. When Sinclair describes the thousands of people waiting to just get a chance at getting employment, he shows that the naturalistic nature of the packing yards. He shows that the people have little chance of getting employment, or even surviving in the brutal jungle of Chicago. These naturalistic lives are something that Sinclair wishes do to away with, and replace it with democratic socialism.
He also describes the policemen and strikebreakers in a vague way. Through this technique, sinclair is able to show the effects of capitalism through the eyes of a variety of people using a god-like narrator. This mix of views helps to strengthen his socialist beliefs in the novel. The other narrator expounds dark upon certain events that occur in the novel. This narrator is like an aside in a play; it is just like sinclair stepped into the story to deliver a message to the reader. This narrator is used when Sinclair feels that a traditional narrator is not enough. The narrator is used in muckraking passages to show things that Jurgis couldn? T possibly know, such as articles in newspapers. This is evident in when Sinclair writes: If he had been able to buy all the newspapers of the United States the next morning, he might have discovered that his beer hunting exploit was being pursued by some two score millions of people, and had.
His is then unable to find work, and must rely on the women and children of the family. Due to the large number of people looking for work is looked over many times. The massive number of people makes it almost impossible to find employment. In addition, the point of view of the author helps move the reader to socialism. The third person omniscient narrator summarizes most of the events in the novel. This narrator is used during Sinclair? During the summary narrative, he simply does not dramatize anything. A prime example of this is when Sinclair describes the process of killing hogs and making them into a variety of products.
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Jurgis and thank the proletarians are being held down in low paying, long hour jobs, by a small group of rich men. These men practice something called vertical integration, in which they can control every aspect of the industrial process. An example is the meatpacking industry, which includes shipment of the hogs, the slaughtering of the hogs, the packing of the meat, and even the occasional bribing of a government mean inspector. According to many socialist, including Sinclair, large things such as plants and mills should be either divided into small units so that work can coincide in a single person or a family, luther or collective ownership (Ebenstein 242). Under this sort of economy, people such as Jurgis and Marija would be able to control there own destiny, not a greedy wage-master. One is forced to believe that if Jurgis and Marija were able to control there own destiny they might have succeeded.
Also, man verse society is a prevalent conflict due to the struggle of Jurgis and the competitive nature of capitalism. The struggle seemed to be on side of Jurgis in the beginning of the novel, but latter in the novel he is unable to get a job. In the beginning of the book sinclair writes "Ona had a husband who could solve all problems, and who was so big and strong!" (23) he is later transformed to weaker man. When he first set out to get a job, he was quickly distinguished from the others due to his massive size. But after a while his massive build beings to deteriorate after his bedridden injury.
S the use of talking about it? Ll stay here till I die, i guess." (393) Hence, due to the evils of capitalism, characters in the novel show the entire social system to prove that all that come in contact with capitalism are brutalized and corrupted. In addition to the characters, conflict plays a role in the moving of the reader along the path towards socialism. Man verse man is a prevalent conflict in the book because it shows the proletarians against the gentry. This conflict has been around since the beginning of time, from the Egyptian pharos and slaves to the industrial wage-slaves to their masters.
As Moses was the savior for the enslaved Egyptian slaves, socialism is portrayed as the savior to the working class people. It is said that socialism has its deepest roots in the bible. According to william Ebenstein, "Early Christians rejected the concept of? And practiced socialism in their everyday lives" (239). These lower class workers are being treated as if they were monkeys, or maybe some sort of super intelligent dogs. The bosses of these people are heartless, cruel people that have no soul. When a man was scalded by a hot, smoldering piece of steel, he received no compensation, and he didn? T even get his job back when he was healed.
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When she first tries to get a job in the meat plants, she needs to bribe the forewomen in order to get the job. Also while marija is trying to support the family without Jurgis, she is led to a life of prostitution because it is the only job she can obtain. While dissertation living in the brothel, she acquires a morphine addiction. While she lives in the brothel, she finds that living there was unexpected consequences, such as having to pay for living there, which amounts to basically the entire paycheck. She soon finds out that she cannot support her family due to the capitalist mindset in Chicago. She figures that being a whore is a better than having to starve and live on the street. While marija is in the brothel, tita Elizbieta and her teenage children are forced to attain jobs to support themselves, but it is a feeble attempt, as they are forced to move in with friends of theirs. In the final chapter, marija gives up all hope of trying, as apparent in the following": "no, " she answered, "I?ll never stop.
year, he is bribed to vote under many different pseudo-names, and is paid four dollars, equal to a week worth of work. Also, jurgis is paid five dollars to pick up paychecks for imaginary city workers. Later in the novel, jurgis becomes involved in the political machine. He finds that he becomes one of the henchmen for the political powers in the packing yards. After he gets put in jail, he is forced to buy is way out, which costs him everything he has. After he is forced to live like a vagabond again, he feels an inadequacy about his life, an empty feeling. He misses how he used to live extravagantly, and wonders how he could have lived without. Another character that finds the evils of capitalism is Marija, who is forced in a life of prostitution and drug use due to the competitive nature of capitalism.
In order for Sinclair to give accurate details in the book, he spent over a year researching and writing about the conditions on the meat packing plants in Chicago. This first hand experience allowed for Sinclair to see the plight of the "wage-slaves." At the turn of the century, no laws were in place to protect the workers or to regulate the shipment of meat. The jungle was originally serialized in a socialist newspaper, entitled Appeal to reason. When the book was finally published in book form, it instigated a pure food movement, which brought about the pure food and Drug Act. Brett said the following of The jungle: "The jungle will set forth the breaking of human hearts by a system which exploits the labor of men and women for profit. It will shake the poplar heart and blow the roof off the industrial tea-kettle. What socialism add will be in this book, will, of course, be imminent; it will be reveled by incidents-there will be no sermons. This is very truthful, as it accurately describes how Sinclair leads the reader towards socialism through the various literary aspects in the novel- such as characters, conflict, point of view, theme, and style.
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The jungle: a close Examination Essay, research Paper. There are a million people, men and women and children, who share the curse of the wage-slave; who toil every hour they can stand and see, for just enough to keep them alive; who are condemned till the end of their days to monotony and. And then turn them over to me, and gaze upon the other side of the picture. There are a thousand-ten thousand, maybe-who are master of these slaves, who own their toil. They do nothing to earn what they receive, they do not even have to ask for it-it comes to them of itself, their only care is to dispose. They live in such palaces, summary they riot in luxury and extravagance-such as no words can describe, as makes the imagination reel and stagger, makes the soul grow sick and faint. The jungle, considered Upton Sinclair? S greatest achievement, shows the deplorable conditions in meat packing plants, as well as moving the reader on the path to socialism, something in which he truly believed.