Its interesting to note than in best general, a womans wergild was usually about half of what a man of the same social standing would be valued. The Anglo-saxons led hard lives. There was the constant threat of hunger, disease, and the elements, and bloody attacks were always a possibility. As a result, a strong king or leader was chosen who could keep the tribe safe. The leaders followers were expected to be completely loyal, and in return for loyalty and heroism in battle, the king or leader was expected to bestow gifts to his subjects. These might have included gold, weapons, horses, land, or slaves. The elements of loyalty and generosity can be seen. The most important structure in early Anglo-saxon settlements was the mead hall. It was often built in the center of a village.
The Anglo-saxons were farmers, hunters, fishermen, and essay warriors. They were also talented in working with metals, creating weapons, armor, coins, and jewelry. The different tribes had little overall unity. Instead, groups would form their own kingdoms, and they often fought with one another. In fact, there was much fighting and feuding among a tribe, and revenge and the payment of a debt were expected. In other words, if a tribesman killed a person, the dead mans family was expected to seek vengeance by killing the offender. To stop much of the blood spilling, the wergild began to be used. A wergild was a repayment for a life, with gold. Each person was assigned a worth, based on his or her standing.
Beowulf, the Anglo-saxons are responsible for its creation. It was handed down orally long before it was written down. The oral version was probably composed before the year 500, when Germanic tribes were mostly still living in Scandinavia and Germany. No one knows exactly when the poem was written down, but it was most likely penned at some point between the years 7like most legends, it was probably added to and altered over the years. Beowulf was written down, many of the Anglo-saxons had converted to Christianity, but old pagan elements were still included in the poem. The Anglo-saxons were comprised of several Germanic tribes, including not just the Angles and the saxons, but also the Franks, the jutes, and the Frisii. They began migrating to what we now know as England in the fifth century, and by the end of the sixth century, the tribes were introduced to Christianity. The Anglo-saxon language used by the germanic tribes was an amalgamation of several Germanic dialects, what we now call Old English. Much of England was ruled by various Anglo-saxon kingdoms until the norman Conquest, in 1066.
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Ernest Hemingway - the author of The Old Man and the sea, the sun Also rises and numerous other novels, he was also a fine short story writer. Robert Bloch - before writing Psycho, bloch, like so many authors, got his start writing for the old pulp horror and science fiction magazines. Stephen King - probably the most popular author of all time with many short stories to his credit. Most, if not all, esl students would have at least heard of King. Ray bradbury - a prolific author of science fiction, he is best known for The martian Chronicles.
Online resources for Short Stories If you are looking for short stories that would appropriate for adult esl students to read, the following sites offer guidance and online materials for both students and instructors: reading short stories provides the esl student with an opportunity. Whether read as individual activities or used as the basis of class activities, short stories are a key part of the esl lesson plan. In most cases, the more a writer knows about a literary piece, the better his or her essay will. A good way to better understand a work of literature is to understand the culture that produced. In the case.
A good rule of thumb is to keep to genre pieces that are as close to mainstream as possible. The cask of Amontillado will likely be an easier read than something out of Barker's. This is not due to the language - barker would probably be easier from the language perspective - it is due to the subject matter and the intensity of the images. You may encounter someone who has never read such a story and really will not know how to process. Some suggested Authors, not every author listed below is appropriate for every esl student; but, there is enough overlap to cover the needs of most esl students. The stories are fun, inspirational and thought-provoking, guaranteed to bring about great in-class discussions and response essays.
However, most importantly, the writing is accessible for adult esl students: Earl Derr Biggers - the creator of the classic Hawaiian detective, charlie chan. Jack london - author of, the call of the wild as well as great short stories. The pit and the pendulum, never Bet The devil your head and others. George Orwell - best known for his unforgettable novels 1984 and, animal Farm. Dashiel Hammet - the creator of detective sam Spade and author of The maltese falcon. Raymond Chandler - another writer of hard boiled detective stories centering around his character Philip Marlowe. John Steinbeck - considered a quintessential American author with his novels The Grapes of Wrath, Of Mice and Men and Cannery row.
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The storytelling itself should be straightforward, the plot fairly easy to follow for a native speaker of English. The temptation some literary folks plan feel to inject some of the classics of nineteenth-century British literature, like stoker's. Dracula or Conan-doyle's, sherlock holmes, into paper the curriculum should be resisted as much as possible. True, britain produced some amazing literature during this period and many of these are considered classics today. However, the language tends to be dense and difficult even for many native speakers of English. Esl students have plenty of time, once they master the basics, to tackle these more advanced pieces. Genre fiction, genre fiction is a term that refers to a story that is clearly within one of the highly identifiable genres or types of fiction. The major genres include: Romance, western, science fiction. Horror, mystery, thriller, you do not have to stay away from genre fiction, but you do need to be cautious.
interesting challenges in comprehension in an enjoyable atmosphere. How to Choose Appropriate material, the stories should be short enough to read in a single sitting, somewhere between five and ten pages depending on the skill level of the student. The student's skill level also governs the style and complexity of the story under consideration. The more basic the learner, the more basic the story should be, regardless of the student's age. The last thing you want to do is turn what should be an enjoyable experience into an exercise in frustration. With that in mind, here are a few additional tips to follow when selecting a short story for an esl student: keep to reasonably contemporary fiction, 1930s and newer. The language should be challenging, but not overwhelming or obtuse.
Reading is especially important since it touches on every aspect of language acquisition. Students can practice their oral skills by reading internet aloud. The stories and essays they read show proper sentence structure and syntax in action while giving them ideas for their own writing. Developing reading comprehension improves vocabulary and makes it easier for the students to follow directions, do research and perform other reading-related activities. Reason for Short Story for reading Practice. The bottom line is that literary fiction, short stories in particular, is as important for esl learning as essays, news articles or anything else the instructor might present. The subject matter and the presentation are typically more engaging. The idea of reading a story, as opposed to an expository essay, injects an element of fun into the class.
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Free sample toefl essays, learning to write well is a skill, like any other. This skill is important not only on your toefl exam, but also in your academic and professional career. The toefl writing section consists of two parts: Integrated Writing, which includes reading, listening and then writing a summary/ comparison piece of 250 word in 20 minutes. Independent Writing, which involves writing a four to five-paragraph essay of 300-350 words in 30 minutes. The following free sample toefl essays illustrate how to get a high score on the independent writing section of the ibt. By reading through the essays, you can learn how to: develop any topic into a well-organized, logical answer use synonyms to paraphrase the question use a variety of sentence structures grammatical forms begin with a simple, strong introduction create gpa body paragraphs that flow logically develop. The added practice will enable you to complete a strong essay, with ease, confidence, and speed, on the day of your toefl exam and throughout your life. Finding short stories for adult esl students is one of the most important things an esl teacher can do to promote learning.