Lumpenproletariat : the outcasts of society such as the criminals, vagabonds, beggars, or prostitutes without any political or class consciousness. Having no interest in international or national economics affairs, marx claimed that this specific sub-division of the proletariat would play no part in the eventual social revolution. Landlords : a historically important social class who retain some wealth and power. Peasantry and farmers : a scattered class incapable of organizing and effecting socio-economic change, most of whom would enter the proletariat while some would become landlords. Class consciousness denotes the awareness—of itself and the social world—that a social class possesses and its capacity to rationally act in their best shakespeare interests, hence class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution and thus the dictatorship of the proletariat. Without defining ideology, 23 Marx used the term to describe the production of images of social reality. According to Engels, "ideology is a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness.
21 In Marx's view, alienation is an objective characterization of the worker's situation in capitalism—his or her self-awareness of this condition is not prerequisite. Social classes edit main article: Marxian class theory see also: Social class, class conflict, classless society, and small Three-component theory of stratification Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria: ownership of means of production and control over the labour power of others. Following this criterion of class based on property relations, marx identified the social stratification of the capitalist mode of production with the following social groups: Proletariat : ". The class of modern wage labourers who, having no means of production of their own, are reduced to selling their labour power in order to live." 22 The capitalist mode of production establishes the conditions enabling the bourgeoisie to exploit the proletariat because the workers'. Bourgeoisie : those who "own the means of production" and buy labour power from the proletariat, thus exploiting the proletariat. They subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petite bourgeoisie. Petite bourgeoisie are those who work and can afford to buy little labour power. Small business owners, peasant landlords, trade workers and the like. Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.
Under that condition, surplus value (the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer) is synonymous with the term "surplus labour thus capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker. In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved and because workers do not own the means of production, they must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life. The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for. However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory. Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity (German: Gattungswesen, "species-essence "species-being which is a systematic result of capitalism. Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others and so generate alienated labourers.
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Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution. 17 Marx considered class conflicts as the driving force of human history since these recurring conflicts have manifested themselves as distinct transitional stages of development in Western Europe. Accordingly, marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production: 18 Primitive communism : as in co-operative tribal societies. Slave society: a development of tribal to city-state; aristocracy is born. Feudalism : aristocrats are the ruling class; merchants evolve into capitalists. Capitalism : capitalists are the ruling class, who create paper and employ the proletariat.
Criticism of capitalism edit further information: Opposition to capitalism and Criticism of capitalism According to the marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine". 19 Marx believed that the capitalist bourgeois and their economists were promoting what he saw as the lie that "the interests of the capitalist and of the worker are. One and the same therefore he believed that they did this by purporting the concept that "the fastest possible growth of productive capital " was best not only for the wealthy capitalists but also for the workers because it provided them with employment. 20 Exploitation is a matter of surplus labour —the amount of labour one performs beyond what one receives in goods. Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes. In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce.
— russian Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, 1913 13 Society does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand. — karl Marx, grundrisse, 1858 14 The materialist theory of history 15 analyses the underlying causes of societal development and change from the perspective of the collective ways that humans make their living. All constituent features of a society (social classes, political pyramid, ideologies) are assumed to stem from economic activity, an idea often portrayed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure. The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence. According to marx: "The sum total of the forces of production accessible to men determines the condition of society" and forms a society's economic base.
The base includes the material forces of production, that is the labour and material means of production and relations of production,. E., the social and political arrangements that regulate production and distribution. From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness" of political and legal institutions that derive from the economic base that conditions the superstructure and a society's dominant ideology. Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions and thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure. 16 This relationship is reflexive, as at first the base gives rise to the superstructure and remains the foundation of a form of social organization, hence that formed social organization can act again upon both parts of the base and superstructure so that the relationship. As Engels clarified: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.
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According to marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an inevitability, but an economic necessity. 11 In a socialist society, private property —in the form of the means of production—would be replaced by co-operative ownership. A socialist economy would not base production on the creation of private profits, but on the criteria of satisfying human needs—that is, production would be carried out directly for use. As Friedrich Engels said: "Then the capitalist mode of appropriation in which the product enslaves first the producer, and then appropriator, is replaced by the mode of appropriation of the product that is based upon the nature of the modern means of production; upon the. 12 Historical materialism edit main article: Historical materialism Further information: Marxist historiography and Marx's theory of history see also: Historiography, philosophy of history, people's history, historical determinism, and Historicism write The discovery of the materialist conception of history, or rather, the consistent continuation and extension. In the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations. In the second place, the earlier theories did not cover the activities of the masses of the population, whereas historical materialism made it possible for the first time to study with the accuracy of the natural sciences the social conditions of the life of the.
As Karl Marx summary observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution". 9 These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society in the form of class struggle. 10 Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority the bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population the proletariat who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution.
the term. 7 Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either Marx's or his views. 8 Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". 8 In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist then "one thing is certain and that is that i am not a marxist". 8 overview edit marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society. It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics, and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a base and superstructure. As forces of production,. Technology, improve, existing forms of social organization become obsolete and hinder further progress.
This crisis culminates in a essay proletarian revolution and eventually leads to the establishment of socialism —a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, marx hypothesized that socialism would ultimately transform into a communist society ; a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs. Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, though now there is no single definitive marxist theory. 1 Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has then led to contradictory conclusions. 2 However, lately there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought, 3 which should result in more agreement between different schools. Marxism has had a profound and influential impact on global academia and has expanded into many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, 4 media studies, 5 political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film.
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For the political ideology commonly associated with states governed by communist parties, see, marxismLeninism. Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th century german philosophers. Karl Marx and, friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggles in systemic economic change. According to marxian theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed proletariat —a class of wage labourers employed by the bourgeoisie to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying.