The first treasury to the Apollonian temple homework was built before the end of the 7th century bc, a treasury of the temple was constructed by the city of Siphnos during the 6th century. Before the destruction by persians during the 480 invasion, the Athenian Acropolis temple dedicated to Athena stored money; Pericles rebuilt a depository afterward contained within the parthenon. 101 During the reign of the Ptolemies, state depositories replaced temples as the location of security-deposits, records exist to show this having occurred by the end of the reign of Ptolemy i (305284). As the need for new buildings to house operations increased, construction of these places within the cities began around the courtyards of the agora (markets). 106 geographical locus of banking activities edit Athens received the delian leagues ' treasury during 454. 107 During the late 3rd and 2nd century bc, the aegean island of Delos, became a prominent banking center. 108 During the 2nd century, there were for certain three banks and one temple depository within the city. 109 Thirty five hellenistic cities included private banks during the 2nd century (Roberts. .
85 86 According to one source (Dandamaev et al trapezites were the first to trade using money, during the 5th century. C, as opposed to earlier trade which occurred using forms of pre-money. 87 Specific locus of funds edit The earliest forms of storage utilized were the rudimentary money-boxes (θΗΣΑΥΡΌΣ 88 ) which were made similar in summary form to the construction of a bee-hive, and were found for example in the mycenae tombs. Private and civic entities within ancient Grecian society, especially Greek temples, performed financial transactions. 3) The temples were the places where treasure was deposited for safe-keeping. The three temples thought the most important were the temple to Artemis in Ephesus, and temple of Hera within Samos, and within Delphi, the temple to Apollo. These consisted of deposits, currency exchange, validation of coinage, and loans.
78 Documents made to show the banking of taxes were known as peptoken-records. 79 The recording of the gathering of money to buy grain in a pharaoh's kingdom as ordered by the biblical Joseph, is written within the book genesis of the bible, and this money was placed within the house of the pharaoh. 80 Joseph bought with the money of the pharaoh a large amount of corn, having this then laid in the public granaries. 81 Greece edit Trapezitica is the first source documenting banking ( de soto. . The speeches of Demosthenes contain numerous references to the issuing of credit (Millett. . Xenophon is credited to have made the first suggestion of the creation of an organisation known in the modern definition as a joint-stock bank in On revenues written circa 353. The city-states of Greece after the persian Wars produced a government and culture sufficiently organized for the birth of a private citizenship and therefore an embryonic capitalist society, allowing for the separation of wealth from exclusive state ownership to the possibility of ownership by the.
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Later during the maurya dynasty (321 to 185 bc an instrument called adesha was in use, which was an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the the note to a third person, which corresponds to the definition of a bill. During the buddhist period, there was considerable use of these instruments. Merchants in large towns gave letters of credit to one another. China edit main : History of banking in China In ancient China, starting in the qin Dynasty (221 to 206 bc chinese currency developed with the introduction of standardized coins that allowed easier trade across China, and led to development of letters of credit. These letters were issued by merchants who acted in ways that today we would understand as banks. 71 Egypt edit further information: Egypt: government and economy About the time of the 18th century bc, amounts of gold were deposited within the boundaries of the temple buildings of Egypt for reasons of security. 72 In Egypt from early times, grain mission having an intrinsic value as food functioned, in addition to precious metals, as money.
The regional granaries were used to store and loan the grain of communities, functions similar to banking services although not the same. Under the dynastic rule of the Ptolemies, the numerous scattered government granaries were transformed into a network of grain banks, centralized in Alexandria where the main accounts from all the state granary banks were recorded. This centralized administration was the first known governmental bank (according to de soto 73 74 functioning as a trade credit system that transferred payments between accounts without passing money. According to muir (2008) there were two types of banks operating within Egypt, royal and private. 75 During the Ptolemaic period, basilik trápeza was the term used when referring to royal bank. 76 More generally during the whole Graeco-roman period (332. 77 banks were of three types, either privately run, leased, or owned by government, of which included within this last group were some organisations having dual roles including being additionally treasury departments.
The habit of depositing and storing of wealth in temples continued at least until 209. C., as evidenced by Antioch having ransacked or pillaged the temple of Aine in Ecbatana ( Media ) of gold and silver. Cuneiform records of the house of Egibi of Babylonia describe the family's financial activities dated as having occurred sometime after 1000 bc and ending sometime during the reign of Darius i, show according to one source a "lending house" (Silver 2002 a family engaging. The provision of credit is apparently also something the murashu family participated in (Moshenskyi 2008). Asia minor edit further information: Asia minor From the fourth millennia previously agricultural settlements began administrative activities.
The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was the largest depository of Asia. A pot-hoard dated to 600. Was found in excavations by the British Museum during the year after 1904. During the time at the cessation of the first Mithridatic war the entire debt record at the time being held, was annulled by the council. Mark Anthony is recorded to have stolen from the deposits on an occasion. The temple served as a depository for Aristotle, caesar, dio chrysostomus, Plautus, Plutarch, Strabo and Xenophon. The temple to Apollo in Didyma was constructed sometime in the 6th century. A large sum of gold was deposited within the treasury at the time by king Croesus. 66 67 India edit main article: History of banking in India in ancient India there are evidences of loans from the vedic period (beginning 1750 BC).
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Prior to the help reign of Sargon i of akkad (23352280. 34 ) the occurrence of trade paper was limited to the internal boundaries of each city-state of Babylon and the temple located at the centre of economic activity there-in; trade at the time for citizens external to the city was forbidden. In Babylonia of 2000. C., people depositing gold were required to pay amounts as much as one sixtieth of the total deposited. Both the palaces and temple are known to have provided lending and issuing from the wealth they held—the palaces to a lesser extent. Such loans typically involved issuing seed-grain, with re-payment from the harvest. These basic social agreements were documented in clay tablets, with an agreement on interest accrual.
Nb 1 Later during the Achaemenid Empire (after 646. 15 further evidence is found of banking practices in the mesopotamia region. Structural edit by the 5th millennium. The settlements of Sumer, such as Eridu, were formed around a central temple. In the fifth millennium, people began to time build and live in the civilization of cities, providing a structure for the construction of institutions and establishments. Tell Brak and Uruk were two early urban settlements. Earliest forms of banking edit see also: Banker (ancient) Asia edit mesopotamia and Persia edit further information: Mesopotamia: Economy and agriculture banking as an archaic activity (or quasi-banking 30 31 ) is thought to have begun at various times, during a period as early. C., 32 to within the 4th to 3rd millennia. 33 Among many other things, the code of Hammurabi recorded interest-bearing loans.
obsidian was replaced during the 3rd millennia by trade instead of copper and silver. Record-keeping edit detailed account of raw materials and workdays for a basketry workshop. 2040 bc (Ur iii) Further information: History of accounting Ancient history, and History of accounting Objects used for record keeping, " bulla " and tokens, have been recovered from within near East excavations, dated to a period beginning 8000. C.E and ending 1500. C.E., as records of the counting of agricultural produce. Commencing in the late fourth millennia mnemonic symbols were in use by members of temples and palaces to serve to record stocks of produce. Types of records accounting for trade exchanges of payments were being made firstly about 3200. A very early writing on clay tablet called the code of Hammurabi, refers to the regulation of a banking activity of sorts within the civilization (Armstrong) of an era which dates. 1700 bce, banking was well enough developed to justify laws governing banking operations.
2, the oldest essay bank still in existence is Banca monte dei paschi di siena, headquartered in siena, italy, which has been operating continuously since 1472. 3 The development of banking spread from northern Italy throughout the holy roman Empire, and in the 15th and 16th century to northern Europe. This was followed by a number of important innovations that took place in Amsterdam during the dutch Republic in the 17th century, and in London since the 18th century. During the 20th century, developments in telecommunications and computing caused major changes to banks' operations and let banks dramatically increase in size and geographic spread. The financial crisis of caused many bank failures, including some of the world's largest banks, and provoked much debate about bank regulation. Contents Ancient authority edit further information: Economic history of the world and History of economic thought More stable economic relations were brought about with a change in socio-economic conditions from a reliance on hunting and gathering of foods to agricultural practice, during periods beginning sometime. 4 5 6 Monetary edit The history of banking is intertwined with the history of money. Ancient types of money known as grain-money and food cattle-money were used from a time of around at least 9000 bc, as two of the earliest things understood as things to be made use of for the purposes of barter (davies). 7 8 Anatolian obsidian as a raw material for Stone Age tools was being distributed from as early as about 12,500.
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The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities. This was around 2000. Later, in ancient Greece and during the, roman Empire, lenders based in temples made loans, while accepting deposits and performing the change of money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and, india also shows evidence of money lending activity. Many histories position the crucial historical development of a banking system to medieval and Renaissance, italy and particularly the affluent cities. Florence, venice and, genoa. The, bardi and, peruzzi, families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts. 1, the most famous Italian bank was the. Medici bank, established by, giovanni medici in 1397.