Figure 4 illustrates this with multiple switches using spanning tree protocol to provide switch fault tolerance. In this configuration, a sensed failure of a server adapter or link connection results in automatic switching to a secondary standby path (shown by dotted lines in Figure 4). For simplicity of illustration, figure 4 shows a single segment on the server. Additional segments with switch fault tolerance require additional sets of cross-connected switches and additional server-adapter pairs. While this does add to network complexity, the benefits are higher throughput through segmentation and higher reliability through switch fault tolerance. The example of Figure 4 also emphasizes the importance of multi-port server adapters such wallpaper as the Intel pro/1000 mt quad Port Adapter. Using this adapter allows the addition of four ports to a server from a single pci or pci-x slot.
In growing organizations with mission-critical applications, such potential server problems are typically addressed by using server clusters, where the cluster is set up to absorb the loss of any one needed server. Switches Enhance control and Reliability The segmentation examples shown in Figures 2 and 3 can benefit further by substituting smart switches for the dumb hubs. Dumb hubs distribute network traffic by broadcasting all packets to all client nodes. This forces each node to process all packets in order to find its intended packets. Smart switches minimize this packet processing by routing packets to the intended node only. As a result, packet processing is reduced and throughput increased. The fact that each node receives only the packets intended for it also makes the switched network inherently more secure. Smart switches can also be configured to make networks more reliable and resilient.
Both servers and their associated subnets experience reduced traffic because accounting rarely accesses the engineering side, and engineering rarely accesses the accounting side. They are on different freeways, so to speak. However, both sides still have access to each other via the router for, budget reports and other cross-enterprise activities. 4 5 Figure. Switch fault tolerance on a single segment Computer Switch Switch Spanning Tree protocol Spanning Tree protocol Switch Switch Computer Active standby such a segmentation approach makes network management easier and increases system reliability and security. For example, because Groups a and b are on different servers, Group b applications or upgrades are less likely to step on Group a applications, and vice versa. Also, if a server bogs down or crashes, it affects only that server s segment of the network.
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However, using an Intel pro/1000 quad Port Adapter is even better because it provides four ports from a single pci or pci-x slot. This conserves server slots while providing ready scalability for additional network growth such as that illustrated in Figure. Figure 3 shows the next evolutionary step in segmenting a small office network, such as might be found in a branch with office or a consulting firm. This configuration includes two servers and each server uses three ports. If these servers were initially upgraded with dual-port adapters, they would now have to be upgraded with another adapter to support the implementation of Figure.
An initial upgrade to a quad-port server adapter, as suggested previously, provides the needed future capacity for transitioning to the segmentation scheme shown in Figure. The segmentation scheme in Figure 3 accommodates the diverse needs of two different workgroups. For example, group A might represent accounting and management functions, and Group B might represent an engineering function. The segmentation in Figure 3 confines engineering applications and associated traffic to the Group B server. Similarly, management and accounting traffic is confined to the Group A side of the network.
This hub is a dumb and inexpensive device where each connection sees the traffic of all other clients, which is not a particularly efficient or secure means of distribution. Also, in the case of ten connections or clients, each client sees only one-tenth the bandwidth of the source. Expanding such a network by daisy chaining another hub to the first causes a similar loss of bandwidth for the added hub and its clients. A better approach to expanding client count is to segment the network as shown in Figure. This allows client count expansion while maintaining client port bandwidth, as opposed to diminishing it with daisy chaining.
With a static client count, bandwidth and throughput actually increases. This is because now, instead of 10 clients competing for the throughput of a single trunk, segmentation has split the client traffic across two segments, or subnets. Implementing the segmentation shown in Figure 2 does require an additional server port. Installing another server adapter provides the necessary additional port, but this consumes another server Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) or Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended (pci-x) slot. A better approach when upgrading servers to capability is to use multi-port server adapters. For example, upgrading to capability with a dual-port Intel pro/1000 Adapter uses a single server slot to provide the two ports necessary for the segmentation shown in Figure.
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Basic embryonic network topology The first step in performance enhancement, however, is hippie typically network segmentation. This is particularly true for small startups or branch offices. In such cases, networks tend to start out small and simple a single server with ten or fewer clients, for example where segmentation hasn t been implemented. As the organization grows or applications become more complex, segmentation becomes a necessity for improving network response, throughput and resiliency. Additionally, segmentation opens growth paths for network organization according to workgroup needs and for network expansion to accommodate multiple workgroups in large buildings. 10 Clients Hub 3 4 Figure. Basic network segmentation Figure. Segmentation by workgroups 5 Clients Hub router Hub 5 Clients Group a clients Group b clients Continuing with the discussion of Figure 1, notice that distribution between the server and the clients is through a simple hub.
First, consider the basic network shown in Figure 1, which is typical of an embryonic enterprise. This is the seed from which even the largest enterprise networks once germinated. However, figure 1 shows a key difference. Notice that thesis the simple network of Figure 1 has a gigabit Ethernet trunk. Many servers, especially in older networks, still use a fast Ethernet adapter. As a first performance upgrade, such servers should be converted to gigabit Ethernet. This conversion can be done quickly and easily from a wide choice of Intel pro/1000 Adapters for both copper cabling (cat 5) and fiber-optic cabling. Converting servers from Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) to gigabit Ethernet provides an immediate bandwidth advantage for higher throughput.
gigabit Ethernet replacing dumb hubs with smart switches, and adding switched redundant links for higher network reliability. For high-performance demands, especially for application-intensive operations with numerous transfers of extremely large files, network administrators may want to consider converting their network backbone to 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10). Boosting Performance with Segmentation Segmentation s basic function is to split traffic loads, thus alleviating bottlenecks. This is, in essence, comparable to changing a two-lane highway into a four-lane highway. More traffic flows quicker. Add another segment more lanes and even more traffic can flow quickly. In addition to enhancing throughput, segmentation offers network administrators other advantages, such as high security and reliability, which can be gained by careful definition of segments and judicious selection of the implementing hardware. To gain insight into these additional advantages and the throughput gains offered by segmentation, let s take a brief look at a simple network topology and evolve it into a campus network.
Other topics include the use of multi-port adapters to conserve server slots and the benefits of on-board adapter processing to free server resources. 2 3 Addressing the burdens of Enterprise Growth Ideally, network growth is well planned and orchestrated in advance to meet the additional burdens of business growth. Too often, though, network expansion is reactive rather than proactive. Business growth just isn t that predictable. This is especially true for rapid growth in small start-ups, for consolidating branch offices into a regional office, or even in the acquisition-fueled growth of a multinational corporation size is no antidote for growth pains. While information technology (IT) managers resume try to plan for network growth, rapid or unexpected growth can stretch it budgets and staff to the limit. Then the overriding objective becomes, let s just get something up and running right now. This, in turn, may result in missing the full potential for realizing greater network performance and scalability, leaving the it staff to face major performance enhancements in the future. Fortunately, it managers can mitigate the burdens of rapid growth by using network segmentation.
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This information is provided by the communication and Outreach Branch of the International Association of geodesy, which is hosted by the department of geodesy and Surveying of the budapest University of Technology and Economics, and the Physical geodesy and geodynamics Research hippie Group of the hungarian. 1 White paper Intel Adapters Network management Network performance Using Segmentation to Increase network performance more network users, greater application complexity, larger file sizes all of these can increase network traffic, resulting in decreased network performance. Using multiple gigabit Ethernet server ports provides a quick and cost-effective method for segmenting traffic loads to enhance network bandwidth, response and reliability. December 2004 2 Contents Executive summary.2 Addressing the burdens of Enterprise Growth.3 boosting Performance with Segmentation.3 Switches Enhance control and Reliability.5 Combining nics and lom for Performance.6 Further Performance Enhancements.7 Conclusion.8 Executive summary business growth, while generally desirable, imposes additional burdens that can diminish network. Performance-robbing burdens include rapid growth in the number of network users or clients, higher traffic volume generated by each client, increasing application complexity and larger file sizes. This white paper discusses network segmentation as a quick and cost-effective means of boosting network performance in any business, from rapidly growing start-ups to expanding multinational corporations. The role of Intel Adapters is also discussed, both as a tool for implementing segmentation and as a means for enhancing reliability and server efficiency.