Many of these do not coincide with their direct English translation. There are no phrasal verbs in arabic and this whole area is one of the great difficult for Arabic speakers. Defence mechanisms may involve selecting alternative but regular verbs to avoid using phrasal verbs altogether, or the misuse or omission of the preposition or particle. As prepositions in Arabic are always followed by or linked to a noun or pronoun, preposition- stranding patterns in English will usually help be avoided in favour of the Arabic patterns, which are often similar to more formal English. Literature review: a review of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Research. Over the past years, studies of second languages learning have occupied a significant position in the field of linguistic. The term second language acquisition refer to the subconscious or conscious by which a language other than the other tongue is learnt in natural or a taught setting. It includes the development of phonology, lexis, grammar and pragmatic knowledge (Ellis, 2008).
Having known the definition of grammar, it is not hard for us to understand why grammar is useful and important. Without knowing the grammar of a language, one can not be said to have learned the language. Besides, it seems impossible to learn a language without learning the grammar because it tells him how to use the language. People learn how to construct a good message based on the rules they have known and try to convey the message to the others. These rules are termed as grammar. The mechanism of grammar cannot be seen concretely, because it is rather abstractly represented in the human mind, but we know it is there because it works. One way of describing this mechanism is by means of a set of rules which allow us to put words together in certain ways which do not allow others. The meaning of a message conveyed by language has to be converted into words put together according to grammatical rules and these words are then conveyed by sounds. Preposition gpa and particles, sawn states that Arabic has a wealth of fixed prepositions and particles, used with both verbs and adjectives.
It is one of the languages used in communication almost all over the world. It used mainly in Britain and its commonwealth all over the world and it has become one of the main languages of international communication. It has a very important role in technological and scientific advances. 2.1 Grammar, the word grammar has several meanings and there is no universally accepted definition. Different experts define the term grammar differently. There is no fixed definition of grammar. Leech (1982: 3) defined grammar as something in reference to the mechanism according to which language works when it is used to communicate with other people. Harmer (2001: 12) defines grammar as the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language. Gerot wignell (1994: 2) state that grammar is a theory of a language, of how language is put together and how it works.
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The main stimulus for learning English is instrumental,. To achieve a goal,. A career (ibid, 2003).To shed more about the present status of English in the Arab world, zughoul rightly states: 'despite the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of English, it is still badly needed in the Arab world for the purposes of communicating with the world, education. Teaching still needs more efforts to be autobiography exerted to raise the quality and standard of English of the Arab learners at all levels, (ibid 2003). Language is a means of communication with individuals.
It is a system of sound which is structured and used to communicate people's feeling, intentions, purpose, etc to the others. It is a special characteristic of human or it can also be regarded as one of human criteria because only human beings speak a language. However, the ability to speak a language should be developed in a social group. Sapir (1921:p 8) says "language is purely human and non instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotional, and desires by means of system of voluntarily produced symbols.". One of the languages is English.
And in many instances it is a language of wider communication both among individuals from different countries as well as individuals from one country. Globally and locally, english is an international language. Crystal (1997) states that when a language develops a special role recognized in every country (p. 2 it achieves a global status. The same case is when). Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, introduction: teacher of English as a second language is ultimately faced with a dichotomy between knowledge and performance, especially if they teach courses with a major component of written expression.
A class of English language learners can perform sufficiently in routine grammatical exercises, but then fail signally to translate this demonstrated knowledge into reality when faced with the task of writing original prose. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of grammatical errors in students' writing as a means of identifying those aspects of English grammar that do not translate well from routine testing of grammatical knowledge to original work. The results provide some insight into shortfall in the capabilities of students and, more importantly, identify ways to redress them. Interest in the teaching of English as an international language has been growing throughout the Arab countries, and most Arab governments began to launch the teaching of English as compulsory subject in schools. At present, in most Arab countries, all students who finish the public secondary school education must have had at least eight years of teaching in English as a school subject. So, because of the widespread use of English as a second language, the subject of language teaching in general and teaching English as a foreign or second language in particular, has become the focus of attention of most Arab researchers (Al-Khatib, 2000). As far as English at tertiary level in the Arab world is concerned, (Zughoul, 2003; Sultana, (2001) point out that teaching through the medium of English is obvious in the field of higher education with the exception of Syria which maintained a strong teaching tradition. Zughoul, in confirming this issue has said, 'no laws have been enacted or language plans drawn to be implemented regarding the use of Arabic in Arab universities in any Arab country' (ibid, (2003). As far as Arab students are concerned, recently, rababah has rightly stated that 'attitudinal studies conducted on Arab students, consistently showed that Arab students are instrumentally motivated to learn English and that they are well aware of the utility of knowing English.
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English as an International Language or any similar topic only for you). Cojocaru Olga-georgiana, master sta, anul I, sem. This paper is intended to raise awareness on the aspects which define English as an international language, by examining the characteristics of an international language, the number dark of users, how it spread to reach global status, what factors may impede its continued spread and what. Englishs international status is determined by a constellation of political, economic, show more content, the spread of English began in the nineteenth century due to different factors such as migration of English-speaking individuals and technological and scientific advances occurred in English-speaking countries. Since then it has been in a continued growth, reaching today global status and winning the title of international language Therefore, the study of this phenomenon and the study of Englishs evolution is a subject of major interest because of its multitude of cultural, political. Defining an international language, by definition, an international language is a language that has a large number of native speakers. If this definition is sustained, then Mandarin, English, Spanish, hindi, and Arabic are five most widely spoken languages in the world today. Even so, unless these languages are spoken by a large number of native speakers of other languages, the language is not considered a language of wider communication. English, in this sense, is the international language par excellence (Mckay 2002).
countries such as India and Nigeria and others under the American sphere of influence, such as the Philippines. Here English may serve as a language for mutual understanding between ethnic language groups. Higher education, the legislature and judiciary, national commerce and so on may all be carried out predominantly in English. And the expanding circle refers to those countries where English has no official role, but nevertheless is important for certain functions, notably international business. This use of English includes most of the rest of the world. In conclusion I would like to say that the knowledge of the English language nowadays is important for career. It increases your salary. We will write a custom essay sample.
Two thirds of all scientific papers are written in English. Over 70 of all mail is written and addressed in English. Most international tourism is conducted in English. There arent any linguistic reasons why English might be the world language, because to anyone learning English its review neither more simple nor more complex than any other language. English is easy to master to some extent, because it has a simple system of declension. Some linguists divide the use of English into three circles. The inner circle is the traditional base of English and includes countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, the usa and former colonies: Australia, new zealand and some others.
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There are lots of gpa languages in the world and some of them fall into the category of international languages or languages of wider communication, such as French, English, german, Spanish, russian, Italian and Arabic. All these languages are the official languages of the United Nations. Among all these languages English is rightly considered to be the international language of the world, though English has assumed the function of the world language quite recently. It was only in the 1930 that the British Foreign Office stopped using French for all its official memoranda. Nowadays it is estimated that besides 300 millions native speakers, there are 300 millions who use English as the second language and 100 millions use it as a foreign language. It is listed as the official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is spoken extensively in other countries where it has no official status. A very marked rise is evident in the use of English for occupation purposes: English is the international language of the air, and failure to use it efficiently can endanger passenger safety. English is the language of banking and industry: many international firms, based in non-English countries conduct their entire operations throughout the world in English.