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The great overseas trading companies were 'the main employers of mathematicians and the first practising scientists' (Simon 1966:387). But for the puritans, education was important because they wanted the bible to be read as widely as possible so that people would be ready for the 'great Instauration'. They had invested in schools since around the 1560s, but their influence came to a head during the revolution of the 1640s and 1650s. During these two decades, 'militant puritanism swept away the monarchy, the house of Lords and the bishops' (Lawson and Silver 1973:153 and the country was governed by a puritan parliament, the army and the lord Protector. Education, along with religion and politics, was 'endlessly debated and reforming ideas circulated as never before' (Lawson and Silver 1973:153). The abolition of the court of Star Chamber in 1640 allowed the propagation of anti-establishment views and led to a flood of pamphlets and tracts. The inspiration for many of these came from Francis Bacon, who had helped to undermine the respect paid to authority and custom by assailing traditional Aristotelian scholasticism and urging close observation of the actual world by experiment and induction (Lawson and Silver 1973:153).

'The debate was write fiercest over the universities, which, to the reformers, were symbols of an alien intellectual and religious order' (Webster 1975:115). The puritans and education Dissatisfied with the traditional grammar schools and universities, the puritans drew up 'a comprehensive range of school, college, and academy proposals in which the sciences and technology increasingly took precedence over linguistic subjects' (Webster 1975:207). These proposals 'caused considerable offence to the academic establishment and were treated as a edgar form of subversive criticism' (Webster 1975:207). Interest in education was not limited to the puritans, however. There was much lively debate and London became a centre of interest in all things educational: Londoners grew accustomed to discussing anything and everything and there was a growing demand for reading-matter. While the provincial towns remained under the tutelage of the gentry, country gentlemen themselves were largely dependent on London for books and in London it was the bourgeoisie that set the tone (Simon 1966:385). During Elizabeth's reign the Inns of court had often been thought of as a university, but in the early seventeenth century george buck (c1560-1622) argued that it was the city of London itself that deserved the title 'the Third University of England' (Simon 1966:388). All the arts and sciences were now being taught, 'not in an academy confined to gentlemen, nor within four walls, but in the city at large and in some branches very much open to citizens' (Simon 1966:389-90). There were groups concerned with promoting research and publishing their findings, and this led to the 'development of a scientific attitude' (Simon 1966:390). For some, education was about practicalities. London merchants were interested in the study of languages, mathematics and astronomy, geography and mapmaking.

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Thus the czech Moravian pastor John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) called for 'Universal Schools' to provide education 'not only for all nations and tongues and orders of evernote men, but for every single individual to rise out of the darkness of ignorance and barbarism' "d in Webster. It was this 'millenarian eschatology' - 'the belief that God had sanctioned the reformation and would ultimately grant complete victory for the reformed churches over the catholic forces of Antichrist' (Webster 1975:1) - which led to the civil wars and the removal of the king. Puritans of all shades of opinion rationalised their situation; they conveyed to the public the impression that the nation was entering into a holy war, in which the royalist enemy represented the forces of Antichrist (Webster 1975:2). Equally important was the puritans' belief in the revival of learning: The recent reaction against the corrupt philosophy of the heathens and the search for a new philosophy based on experience appeared to seventeenth-century protestants to be thoroughly consistent with the religious reformation. The invention of printing and of gunpowder, and particularly the voyages of discovery, seemed to herald a revival of learning which was seen as thoroughly consistent with the envisaged utopian paradise and indeed capable of providing the means whereby the utopian conditions would be realised. It was against this background that educational philosophy blossomed in the seventeenth century, as theorists 'explored the neglected regions of early childhood and adult life' and 'paid attention to the widest range of pedagogical problems' (Webster 1975:103). The puritan reformers realised that they would only succeed with the support of parliament, and they did manage to gain some sympathy for their aims during the period of the commonwealth: 'the necessity of intervention in education was accepted in principle' (Webster 1975:114). However, their proposals for the complete reorganisation of education, the destruction of scholasticism and the introduction of universal education were 'too ambitious for the taste of the new rulers' and 'the state fell back on the traditional form of participation in education, regulating practitioners and. This led to deep rifts among the puritan educators, with reformers arguing that educational reconstruction was necessary for the creation of the millennial state.

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Gripped England in the decades between 16' (Greaves 1969:3). The reforms demanded by the revolutionaries were not purely political: The social structure of England was subjected to withering criticism from a host of zealous critics who demanded a new educational system, a complete overhaul of England's legal structure, a reordering of religious affairs, care. Most of the criticisms and proposed remedies had some merit; others were simply the unrealistic visions of utopian dreamers, divorced from the harsh realities of mid-seventeenth century life (Greaves 1969:3). Nonetheless, 'it is not an exaggeration to claim that between 16, a philosophical revolution was accomplished in England' (Webster 1975:xiii). Millenarian eschatology a key belief of many puritans was that God was about to establish his kingdom on earth, a kingdom which would last for a thousand years. Bacon had called it 'The Great Instauration'. In order to prepare people for this event, it was necessary 'to contemplate education on a scale even more ambitious than that envisaged by the educational pioneers of the reformation' (Webster 1975:101).

A, diagram for Augustine s de doctrina Christiana

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At one extreme were the Anglicans, who believed in the state church and the episcopacy. Their worship was liturgical, 'dignified by the use of clerical dress and symbolic gestures' (Greaves 1969:5). At the other extreme were the sectaries, who wanted nothing to do with the established church and criticised the educational system as part of their general discontent with the entire social structure. They were especially critical of the fact that the universities continued to serve mainly the privileged classes. 'What the sectaries wanted was not professionalism but lay intellectualism' (Greaves 1969:137). In between air these two, and merging with them on either side, were the puritans, who were also divided into various factions.

On the one hand were moderate puritans, some of whom had 'attained prestigious positions in the universities and, through them, often in church and state' (Greaves 1969:6). Their reforming zeal, therefore, 'tended to mellow into a complacent conservatism' (Greaves 1969:6). On the other hand, the more extreme puritan groups were anti-intellectual and anti-university, following a tradition which went back to the Elizabethan sectaries. 'After 1649 this was mainly represented by the levellers and Diggers who spoke for the socially and educationally deprived and had strong urban support, thesis especially in London' (Lawson and Silver 1973:160). While there were fierce arguments between all these groups about ecclesiastical, theological and political issues, they all agreed that social reforms were needed. The sectaries and more liberal Puritans demanded revolutionary reforms, 'often forcing the more conservative puritans to defend a social structure they themselves realized needed changing' (Greaves 1969:6). Thus a 'revolutionary ferment.

The Grandees of the new Model Army reinstalled the rump parliament, but that, too, lasted less than a year. During the commonwealth, the Church of England was retained but episcopacy was suppressed and the 1558 Act of Uniformity was repealed. The rump parliament passed many restrictive laws which sought to regulate moral behaviour, including the closure of theatres and the enforcement of Sabbath observance. Watson argues that the period of the commonwealth 'stands out prominently as that of the English educational Renaissance'. Control of education passed, 'in every direction' (Watson 1921a:1528 from the church to the state.


Calls for educational reform were inspired, at least in part, by a desire to improve the lot of the poor, who had suffered badly in the economic depressions of the 1630s and faced new problems in the 1640s and 1650s, including the failure of the. Puritans called for a broad range of reforms including provision of technological and agricultural education, a system of schools to educate all children, and more financial aid for deserving students. 'These reforms, unlike those calling for poor relief alone, could have been of lasting value as a means to better the status of the lower classes if they had been widely implemented' (Greaves 1969:48). Religious background As in the sixteenth century, religion played a central role in the events of the seventeenth. It had a profound influence on the development of educational philosophy and provision. The protestants who emerged from the reformation were not unified in their beliefs, their practices or their view of the world. Various factions can be broadly identified, though 'any attempt to define the terms sectary, puritan, and Anglican precisely is exceptionally difficult' (Greaves 1969:4).

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He was charged with treason in evernote 1640 and executed in 1645. Charles's intransigence led eventually to the English civil Wars. Following his defeat in 1645, he refused to accept demands for a constitutional monarchy, managed to escape captivity and attempted to forge an alliance with Scotland. But by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had gained control of England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and England was declared a republic. Fighting between royalists cavaliers and republicans roundheads continued pdf until September 1651. The commonwealth, the 'rump' parliament was forcibly dissolved in 1653 and Oliver Cromwell was declared Lord Protector. When he died in 1658 his son Richard assumed the title, but internal divisions among the republicans forced his resignation after just seven months.

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He commissioned the authorised Version of the bible, which was published in 1611. James' eldest son (Henry) died in 1612 so he was succeeded by his second son, Charles. Charles I (1625-1649) inherited from his father a strong belief in the divine right of kings. His arrogance boots led to conflicts with parliament and unpopularity in the country - especially when he attempted to levy taxes without parliamentary consent. He was much more pro-catholic than his father (and indeed married a roman Catholic which caused problems with the puritans and Calvinists. He was regarded as a tyrannical absolute monarch. William laud (1573-1645) became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633. He sought to enforce adherence to what we would now call 'Anglo-catholic' doctrine and ritual, in line with the preferences of Charles. Puritans regarded him as a formidable and dangerous opponent.

1640 - when king and. Once more, as in Edward's day, confiscated ecclesiastical endowments were turned to the use of schools and there were innovations at the universities where colleges, suitably purged of drones, were sometimes furnished with enthusiasts for science (Simon 1966:396). Unfortunately, when the monarchy was restored in 1660 many of the reforms were 'too closely associated with puritan and republican ideas to survive' (Chitty 1992:2). The early Stuarts, elizabeth had been the last of Henry viii's descendants and, being childless, the last Tudor monarch. During the final year of her life, as her health declined, her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil had sought to ensure a smooth succession by conducting secret negotiations with her Stuart cousin, james vi of Scotland, and he was proclaimed James i of England and. James I (1603-1625) was generally popular but suffered continuing threats from Catholics (including the gunpowder Plot of 1605) and conflicts with parliament, especially over his proposal to unite England and Scotland as a single country. Although the long war with Spain was brought to an end, james found himself caught between the Spanish, who continued to demand freedom of worship for Catholics in England, and the Privy council, which urged him to show even less tolerance towards them. The 'golden Age' of Elizabethan literature and drama continued under James, with writers such as William Shakespeare, john Donne, ben Jonson and Sir Francis Bacon. James himself wrote several books. The True law of Free monarchies, published in 1598 while he was King of Scotland, he set out his views on the 'divine right of kings'.

But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. Citations, you are welcome to cite this work. If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2018 education in England: a history /history, references, in references in the essay text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is available online. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the controller of hmso and the queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 3 :, revolution, introduction, the sixteenth century had seen significant developments in the provision of education in England, brought about largely as a result of the reformation. Legislation designed to reduce the power of the church had also 'cleared the ground for the reorganizing of schools and colleges into a more co-ordinated system of education' (Chitty 1992:2). In the first half of the seventeenth century the puritans sought to continue the process of reform.

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New version, this is the new version. Education in England: a history, which has been completely rewritten and updated. To find the period you wish to read about, please check the new chapters list in the left-hand column. If you have any comments about this new version, or spot tree any errors, please let me know. Contact details are here. Derek gillard, education in England: a history, derek gillard first published June 1998 this version published may 2018 copyright Derek gillard 2018. Education in England: a history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and/or print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached.


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