Though a philosopher, goethe was a scientist carrying out work in biology and in optics. Goethe looked at things in a different manner, different than those thinkers up to his time; "he always attempted to see the individual phenomenon as part of the an organic, developing whole." gould, Stephen jay (1941-2002) Of course, one should read Prof. Gould's works, as follows: ever Since darwin (1973 The panda's Thumb (1980 hen's teeth and Horse's toes (1983 The Flamingo's Smile (1985 wonderful Life, and An Urchin in the Storm (1987). Gould's publisher is Norton of New York. As will come as no surprise, gould's discipline was biology. (Click on letter to go to index.) -h- halley, edmund (1656-1742). English mathematician and astronomer. Harvey, william (1578-1657 The major difference between Harvey and his predecessors, was - methodology. Harvey determined to start out, so to speak, with a blank fact book and distinguished it from his theory book.
He was a careful dissector of animals. He was a voluminous writer and gathered up all the medical knowledge of his times. It is to galen that we give credit of being, a physician who was to first give a diagnosis by the taking of a person's pulse. Galileo - astronomer, mathematician and physicist - dwelt, not on the useless question, why do things happen? But, how do things happen? Gilbert, william (1544-1603) Gilbert is famous for his original studies in magnetism. "He passionately rejected both the prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching." (see aquinas.) Gilbert "was one of the originators of the term 'electricity. goethe, johann Wolfgang essay von (1749-1832).
There is evidence that he wrote a number of works, but they have been lost. His work, elements, however, was found, the Arabian mathematicians having carefully preserved it for the rest of us, as western man struggled through his dark ages; it was translated from Arabic into latin, in 1482. The Elements is yet used today in schools, widely so, as a fundamental text book in geometry. (Click on letter to go to index.) -f- faraday, michael (1791-1867 coming from a poor family, faraday was apprenticed at the age of fourteen to a bookbinder: "he was allowed to spend as much time reading books as he did binding them." One of the. After six years of book binding, to his very good fortune, faraday, at the age of 21, was introduced to sir Humphrey davy ; he went and joined davy at the royal Institution as davy's personal assistant. (A story describing the relationship of davy and Faraday would prove to be a mighty interesting one.) At any rate, faraday led a very illustrious career as a scientist. (In those days they called themselves natural philosophers; and indeed, faraday was a philosopher: his researches are pointed to as illustrative of the power of the inductive philosophy.) Though there developed quite a dispute over the point, faraday is generally credited with the discovery. Fermi, fermi (1901-54 While at Rome University, in 1938, fermi won the nobel Prize in Physics "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons." (Click.
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Darwin was to hit on a knowledge theory, highly supported by real evidence, which meant that we no longer had to subscribe to the notion that every species had been created, by some unknowable means, whole, and then, to have come through the ages unchanged. Davy, sir Humphry (1778-1829 davy's father was a woodcarver. At a young age, davy was sent to apprentice with a surgeon in his hometown, penzance. Such an apprenticeship let davy to conduct for chemical experiments and by nineteen years of age he was carrying out some very serious chemical studies. By age 21 he wrote researches, Chemical and Philosophical which led to his appointment to the royal Institution. During the early part of the 19th century, davy was conducting experiments which led to his conclusions that many common substances were formed by the combination of oxygen and metals. This discovery further led davy to decompose certain substances, and, in the process was to discover metals not commonly found in their pure state, such metals as: potassium, sodium, barium, strontium, etc.
In 1812, davy was knighted. In 1815, sir Humphry invented the safety lamp, his most famous invention, which undoubtedly has saved numerous lives of those who worked in the coal mines. During the last of his years, sir Humphry carried out studies in electromagnetism. Dulong, pierre louis (1785-1838 The French chemist who, with Petit, became know for the dulong and Petit's Law (1819 viz., that "all the chemical elements have approximately the same atomic heat or, "the same quantity of heat is needed to heat an atom of all. (Click on letter to go to index.) -e- einstein, Albert (1879-1955 einstein thought in another dimension, unknown and practicably unknowable to most. We may of heard of his Theory of Relativity and his Electromagnetic Theory of Light ; but few of us will ever understand them. Euclid : Euclid was a greek mathematician; he taught in Alexandria, circa 300.
He went into teaching physics; first at Aberdeen (1856) then at London (1860). In 1871, Clerk-maxwell came back to his Alma mater, cambridge, there to become the first professor of experimental Physics. In 1873, he published his great work, treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Clerk-maxwell's greatest work was his initial contribution to electromagnetic radiation. "Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus." Crick, francis Harry compton (b.1916 Crick was born in 1916, at Northampton, England. He studied physics at University college, london, obtaining a science degree in 1937.
During the war he worked as a scientist for the British Admiralty. In 1947 Crick left the Admiralty and went off to cambridge to study biology. In 1954, he obtained. D.; his thesis was entitled "X-ray diffraction: polypeptides and proteins." A critical influence in Crick's career was his friendship, beginning in 1951, with James Watson ; this relationship, in 1953, led to the proposal of the double-helical structure for dna (Deoxyribo nucleic Acid). In 1976, Crick joined the salk Institute for biological Studies in California, where he became involved in studies on how the brain functions. Crick came to believe that the workings of the brain, as complicated as it surely is, is, however, discoverable. Crick was to conclude that in time a scientific model of consciousness will come about. He writes in his 1994 book, the Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific search for the soul, "Your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more that the behavior of a vast assembly. This natural law is a process which Darwin called natural selection.
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(Click on letter to go to index.) -c-, cavendish, henry (1731-1810). The eccentric scientist, after whom the cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge, england, is named. Charles, jacques tree Alexander César (1746-1823 The French scientist after which is named the. Charles's Law which made the connection that a rise in temperature expanded the volume of gas. Charles was to become one of the first balloonists. Clerk-maxwell, james (1831-79 Clerk-maxwell was born in Edinburgh. As a boy of fifteen he devised a method of drawing certain oval curves, a method which was written up by the royal Society of Edinburgh. He attended Cambridge and graduated there as second wrangler.
He invented a vacuum pump and used it in the discovery of what has become known as boyle's law. The principles of boyle's Law were published in 1662. It goes like this: the volume of a given mass of gas (the temperature professional being constant) varies inversely as the pressure; or, that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional. (On the continent it is known as Mariotte's Law; see. brahe, tycho (1546-1601 Brache was the danish astronomer who had rejected the. Copernican theory in favour of that of, ptolemy ; and who, having moved to germany had. Johann Kepler as an assistant. The scientist, which, for his beliefs, the church burnt at the stake.
the shape of the wing. The bernouillis principle might also be demonstrated by looking to a simple instrument to measure wind velocity. The instrument, in its simplest form, is a tube with a ball in it with the tube (the down side end) being closed and the other being open. When the wind blows over the top of the tube, a slight vacuum is created in the tube and the ball is sucked. The stronger the wind, the greater the suction and the further up the tube the ball will travel. Bohr, niels Henrik david (1885-1962 While at Copenhagen University, bohr, in 1922, won the nobel Prize in Physics "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them.". Born, max (1882-1970 While at Edinburgh University, born, in 1954, won the nobel Prize in Physics "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction.". Boyle, robert (1627-91 robert boyle was an Anglo-Irish physicist and chemist. Often referred to as the father of modern chemistry. It was boyle who separated chemistry from alchemy and gave the first precise definitions of a chemical element, a chemical reaction, and chemical analysis.
"equal volumes of different gases, pressure and temperature being equal, contain the same number of molecules or, "equal volumes of gases or vapours contain the same number of molecules." (Click on letter to go to index.) -b-, bernouilli, daniel (1700-82 daniel Bernouilli was a member. Daniel's father, jean Bernouilli (1667-1748 was a professor at Groningen (1695) and Basel (1705). Then there was jean's brother, jacques Bernouilli (1654-1705 who, in 1698 published his work on differential calculus (he was the one who first used the term integral ). Certain of jean's sons went on to teach at a number of universities located throughout Europe. The son we concern ourselves here with, is, daniel Bernouilli. Daniel studied medicine and mathematics, but, eventually settled essay into teaching physics at Basel. He advanced our understanding of the physical world in a number of areas; but, it is in the kinetic theory of gases for which he is most remembered, particularly: the bernouillis principle. It might be simply stated, as follows: "as the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases." Thus it was Daniel Bernouilli who showed that "the total energy in a steadily flowing fluid system is a constant along the flow path.
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The Scientists: Click the letter and you will be brought to the beginning of the appropriate biography list. (Click on letter to go to index.) -a-, ampere, andre marie (1775-1836 Ampere, a teacher at Paris, has his permanent place in the history of science because it was his name that was given to the unit by which we measure electrical current. He had, of course, an interest in electricity; in addition, Ampere made similar investigations as did. Avogadro into the nature of matter in its gaseous state. Alfven, hannes Olof Gosta (1908- what writing i know of Alfven is that he was born in Sweden in 1908; and, while at the royal Institute of Technology, stockholm, in 1970, he won the nobel Prize in Physics "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with. It was written simply and plainly for a general audience, and enables us "to view ourselves both as a part of the atomic microcosm and as part of the universe that dwarfs.". Forever to be known for the Archimedean principle: "a body plunged in a fluid loses as much weight.". Avogadro, armedeo (1776-1856 The Italiian scientist after which is named the.