Prominent in this category are Chinese and American Sign Language, which both differentiate many aspects but rely exclusively on optional time-indicating terms to pinpoint an action with respect to time. In other review language groups, for example in most modern Indo-european languages (except Slavic languages aspect has become almost entirely conflated, in the verbal morphological system, with time. In Russian, aspect is more salient than tense in narrative. Russian, like other Slavic languages, uses different lexical entries for the different aspects, whereas other languages mark them morphologically, and still others with auxiliaries (e.g., English). In literary Arabic al-fuṣā ) the verb has two aspect-tenses: perfective (past and imperfective (non-past). There is some disagreement among grammarians whether to view the distinction as a distinction in aspect, or tense, or both. The past verb (, al-fil al-māḍī ) denotes an event ada ) completed in the past, but it says nothing about the relation of this past event to present status. For example, waṣala, "arrived indicates that arrival occurred in the past without saying anything about the present status of the arriver maybe they stuck around, maybe they turned around and left, etc. nor about the aspect of the past event except insofar as completeness can be considered aspectual.
One of the factors in situation aspect is telicity. Telicity might be considered a kind of lexical aspect, except that it is typically not a property of a verb in isolation, but rather a property of an entire verb phrase. Achievements, accomplishments and way semelfactives have telic situation aspect, while states and activities have atelic situation aspect. The other factor in situation aspect is duration, which is also a property of a verb phrase. Accomplishments, states, and activities have duration, while achievements and semelfactives do not. Indicating aspect edit In some languages, aspect and time are very clearly separated, making them much more distinct to their speakers. There are a number of languages that mark aspect much more saliently than time.
Many sino-tibetan languages, like mandarin, lack grammatical tense but are rich in aspect citation needed. Grammatical aspect edit main article: Lexical aspect There is a distinction between grammatical aspect, as described here, and lexical aspect. Lexical aspect is an inherent property of a verb or verb-complement phrase, and is not marked formally. The distinctions made as part of lexical aspect are different from those of grammatical aspect. Typical distinctions are between states i owned activities i shopped accomplishments i painted a picture achievements i bought and punctual, or semelfactive, events i sneezed. These distinctions are often relevant syntactically. For example, states and activities, but not usually achievements, can be used in English with a prepositional for -phrase describing a time duration: "I had a car for five hours "I shopped for five hours but not i bought a car for five hours". Lexical aspect is sometimes called Aktionsart, especially by german and Slavic linguists. Lexical or situation aspect is marked in Athabaskan languages.
Furthermore, the dubai separation of tense and aspect in English is not maintained rigidly. One instance of this is the alternation, in some forms of English, between sentences such as "have you eaten?" and "Did you eat?". Another is in the pluperfect i had eaten which sometimes represents the combination of past tense and perfect i was full because i had already eaten but sometimes simply represents a past action that is anterior to another past action a little while after. (The latter situation is often represented in other languages by a simple perfective tense. Formal Spanish and French use a past anterior tense in cases such as this.) like tense, aspect is a way that verbs represent time. However, rather than locating an event or state in time, the way tense does, aspect describes "the internal temporal constituency of a situation or in other words, aspect is a way "of conceiving the flow of the process itself".
9 English aspectual distinctions in the past tense include "I went, i used to go, i was going, i had gone in the present tense "I lose, i am losing, i have lost, i have been losing, i am going to lose and with the. What distinguishes these aspects within each tense is not (necessarily) when the event occurs, but how the time in which it occurs is viewed: as complete, ongoing, consequential, planned, etc. In most dialects of Ancient Greek, aspect is indicated uniquely by verbal morphology. For example, the very frequently used aorist, though a functional preterite in the indicative mood, conveys historic or 'immediate' aspect in the subjunctive and optative. The perfect in all moods is used as an aspectual marker, conveying the sense of a resultant state. Ράω i see (present εδον i saw (aorist οδα i am in a state of having seen i know (perfect).
Essentially, the perfective aspect looks at an event as a complete action, while the imperfective aspect views an event as the process of unfolding or a repeated or habitual event (thus corresponding to the progressive/continuous aspect for events of short-term duration and to habitual aspect. For events of short durations in the past, the distinction often coincides with the distinction in the English language between the simple past "X-ed as compared to the progressive "was x-ing" (compare "I wrote the letters this morning" (i.e. Finished writing the letters: an action completed and "I was writing letters this morning. In describing longer time periods, English needs context to maintain the distinction between the habitual i called him often in the past" a habit that has no point of completion) and perfective i called him once" an action completed although the construct "used to" marks. Sometimes, English has a lexical distinction where other languages may use the distinction in grammatical aspect.
For example, the English verbs "to know" (the state of knowing) and "to find out" (knowing viewed as a "completed action correspond to the imperfect and perfect forms of the equivalent verbs in French and Spanish, "savoir" and "saber". This is also true when the sense of verb "to know" is "to know somebody in this case opposed in aspect to the verb "to meet" (or even to the construction "to get to know. These correspond to imperfect and perfect forms of "conocer" in Spanish. In German, on the other hand, the distinction is also lexical (as in English) through verbs "kennen" and "kennenlernen although the semantic relation between both forms is much more straightforward since "kennen" means "to know" and "lernen" means "to learn". Tense edit The germanic languages combine the concept of aspect with the concept of tense. Although English largely separates tense and aspect formally, its aspects (neutral, progressive, perfect, progressive perfect, and in the past tense habitual) do not correspond very closely to the distinction of perfective. Imperfective that is found in most languages with aspect.
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Grammatical aspect is a formal property of a language, distinguished through overt inflection, derivational affixes, or independent words that serve as grammatically required markers of those aspects. For example, the k'iche' language spoken in guatemala has the inflectional prefixes k - and x - to mark incompletive and completive aspect; 4 5 Mandarin Chinese has the aspect markers - le, - zhe, zài -, and - guò to mark the perfective, durative. Even languages that do not needed mark aspect morphologically or through auxiliary verbs, however, can convey such distinctions by the use of adverbs or other syntactic constructions. 8 Grammatical aspect is distinguished from lexical aspect or aktionsart, which is an inherent feature of verbs or verb phrases and is determined by the nature of the situation that the verb describes. Common aspectual distinctions edit The most fundamental aspectual distinction, represented in many languages, is between perfective aspect and imperfective aspect. This is the basic aspectual distinction in the Slavic languages. It semantically corresponds to the distinction between the morphological forms known respectively as the aorist and imperfect in Greek, the preterite and imperfect in Spanish, the simple past (passé simple) and imperfect in French, and the perfect and imperfect in Latin (from the latin "perfectus.
languages. The earliest use of the term recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from 1853. 3 Modern usage edit Aspect is often confused with the closely related concept of tense, because they both convey information about time. While tense relates the time of referent to some other time, commonly the speech event, aspect conveys other temporal information, such as duration, completion, or frequency, as it relates to the time of action. Thus tense refers to temporally when while aspect refers to temporally how. Aspect can be said to describe the texture of the time in which a situation occurs, such as a single point of time, a continuous range of time, a sequence of discrete points in time, etc., whereas tense indicates its location in time. For example, consider the following sentences: "i eat "I am eating "I have eaten and "I have been eating". All are in the present tense, indicated by the present-tense verb of each sentence ( eat, am, and have ). Yet since they differ in aspect each conveys different information or points of view as to how the action pertains to the present.
Aspectual distinctions may be restricted to certain tenses:. Latin and essay the, romance languages, for example, the perfectiveimperfective distinction is marked in the past tense, by the division between preterites and imperfects. Explicit consideration of aspect as a category first arose out of study of the. Slavic languages ; here verbs often occur in pairs, with two related verbs being used respectively for imperfective and perfective meanings. The concept of grammatical aspect should not be confused with perfect and imperfect verb forms ; the meanings of the latter terms are somewhat different, and in some languages, the common names used for verb forms may not follow the actual aspects precisely. Contents Basic concept edit history edit The Indian linguist Yaska (ca. 7th century bce) dealt with grammatical aspect, distinguishing actions that are processes ( bhāva from those where the action is considered as a completed whole ( mūrta ). This is the key distinction between the imperfective and perfective. Yaska also applied this distinction to a verb versus an action nominal.
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Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time. Perfective aspect is used in referring to an event conceived as bounded and unitary, without reference to any flow of time during i helped him. Imperfective aspect is used for situations conceived as existing continuously or repetitively as time flows i was helping him "I used to help people. Further distinctions can be made, for example, to distinguish states and ongoing actions ( continuous and progressive aspects ) from repetitive actions ( habitual aspect ). Certain aspectual distinctions express a relation in time between the event and the time of reference. This is the case with the perfect aspect, which indicates that an event occurred prior to (but has continuing relevance at) the time of reference: "I have eaten "I had eaten "I will have eaten". 2, different languages make different grammatical aspectual distinctions; some (such. Standard German using ; see below ) do not make any. The marking of aspect is often conflated with the marking of tense and mood (see tenseaspectmood ).