"lame duck" session of the 72nd United States Congress, the final obstacle to senate passage came from supporters of small "unit banks" (i.e., single office banks). They opposed the Glass bill's permission for national banks to branch throughout their "home state" and into neighboring states as far as a 50-mile "area of trade." 40 even in the extended period of economic prosperity in the 1920s, a large number of "unit banks". 41 During the Great Depression unit bank failures grew. Willis and others noted that there were internet no significant bank failures in Canada, despite similar bad economic conditions. Canada permitted branch banking (which had led to a system of large, nationwide banks but otherwise shared the. System of "commercial banking" distinct from the "universal banks" common in Europe and elsewhere in the world. 42 Glass stated he had originally supported the "little bank" but as so many unit banks failed he concluded they were a "menace" to "sound banking" and a "curse" to their depositors.
33 Glass and Willis criticized all forms of "illiquid loans" including bank real estate lending. They were, however, especially critical of bank securities activities. Willis identified bank investments in, and loans to finance purchases of, government securities during World War i as the beginning of the corruption of commercial banking that culminated in the "speculative excesses" of the 1920s. 34 Glass and Willis also identified the "unit banking" system of small, single office banks as a basic weakness. 35 The Glass bills tried to limit banks to their "proper" commercial banking activities and to permit banks to expand their geographic operations through greater permission for branch banking. 36 Additionally, many small banks were not able to profit in the securities business, leading many small banks to push for deposit insurance. However, many large banks opposed deposit insurance because "they expected deposits running off from small, weak country banks to come to them." 37 Unit banks, federal Reserve system, and deposit insurance edit following his defeat in the 1932 presidential election, president Herbert hoover supported the. 38 In 1932 hoover had delayed Congressional action on the Glass bill by requesting further hearings and (according to willis) by working to delay senate consideration of revised versions of the Glass bill introduced after those hearings.
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The Glass bills also sought to avoid deposit insurance by providing for a "Liquidation Corporation a federal authority to purchase assets of paper a closed bank based on "an approximately correct valuation of its assets." Glass's idea was for a federal corporation to assume ownership. The bills provided that such payments would be used to make immediate payments to depositors to the extent of the bank's "bona fide assets." 26 27 Glass introduced the first Glass bill on June 17, 1930. The bill's language indicated that it was intended as a "tentative measure to serve as a guide" for a subcommittee of the senate committee on Banking and Currency (the Glass Subcommittee) chaired by Glass that was authorized to investigate the operations of the national and. 28 On January 25, 1933, during the lame duck session of Congress following the 1932 elections, the senate passed a version of the Glass bill. 29 Commercial banking theory; unit banks edit senator Glass supported a commercial banking theory (associated with the real bills doctrine 30 ) that commercial banks should no longer be allowed to underwrite or deal in securities. This theory, defended by senator Glass's long time advisor Henry parker Willis, had served as a foundation for the federal Reserve act of 1913 and earlier us banking law.
Glass and Willis argued the failure of banks to follow, and of the federal Reserve to enforce, this theory had resulted in the "excesses" that inevitably led to the wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. 31 Before and after the wall Street Crash of 1929 Senator Glass used this commercial banking theory to criticize banks for their involvement in securities markets. Glass condemned banks for lending to stock market "speculators" and for underwriting "risky" or "utterly worthless" securities, particularly foreign securities, that were sold to unsophisticated bank depositors and small "correspondent banks." 32 Glass opposed direct bank involvement in these activities and indirect involvement through "securities. Glass and Willis viewed such affiliates as artificial devices to evade limits on bank activities. Large banks such as National City bank (predecessor to citibank ) and Chase national Bank typically used such securities affiliates to underwrite securities.
Regulation of "speculation" edit several provisions of the 1933 Banking Act sought to restrict "speculative" uses of bank credit. Section 3(a) required each Federal Reserve bank to monitor local member bank lending and investment to ensure there was not "undue use" of bank credit for "speculative trading or carrying" of securities, commodities or real estate. Section 7 limited the total amount of loans a member bank could make secured by stocks or bonds and permitted the federal Reserve board to impose tighter restrictions and to not limit the total amount of such loans that could be made by member banks. Section 11(a) prohibited Federal Reserve member banks from acting as agents for nonbanks in placing loans to brokers or dealers. 16 Glass also hoped to put "speculative" credit into more productive sectors of the.
Other provisions still in effect edit Other provisions of the 1933 Banking Act that remain in effect include (1) Sections 5(c) and 27, which required state member banks to provide its district's Federal Reserve bank and the federal Reserve board and national banks to provide. banking Act gave tighter regulation of national banks to the federal Reserve which required state member banks and holding companies to make three reports annually. The reports were to be given to their Federal Reserve board and Federal Reserve bank. 11 Other provisions repealed or replaced edit Provisions of the 1933 Banking Act that were later repealed or replaced include (1) Sections 5(c) and 19, which required an owner of more than 50 of a federal Reserve system member bank's stock to receive a permit. 25 Legislative history edit Glass bills; Glass Senate subcommittee edit between 19enator Glass introduced several versions of a bill (known in each version as the Glass bill) to separate commercial and investment banking and to establish other reforms (except deposit insurance) similar to the final. Glass had been the house sponsor of the federal Reserve act of 1913 (the Glass-Owen Act) and considered himself "the father of the federal Reserve system." The various versions of his Glass bill consistently sought to (1) expand branch banking and bring more banks and. Glass sought to "correct" what he considered to be the "errors" the federal Reserve system had made in not controlling what he considered "speculative credit" during the 1920s.
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2 Congressional efforts to "repeal the GlassSteagall Act" referred to those four provisions (and then usually to only the two provisions that restricted affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms). 14 Those efforts culminated in the 1999 Gramm-leach-Bliley act (glba which repealed the two provisions restricting affiliations between banks and securities firms. banking Act's separation of investment and commercial banking is described in the article on the GlassSteagall Act. Institutions were given one year to decide whether they wanted to specialize in commercial or investment banking. 11 Other provisions of 1933 Banking Act edit you Creation of the federal Open Market Committee edit The act had a large impact on the federal Reserve. Notable provisions included the creation of the federal Open Market Committee (fomc) under Section. However, the 1933 fomc did not include voting rights for the federal Reserve board, which was revised by the banking Act of 1935 and amended again in 1942 to closely resemble the modern fomc. Regulation q edit to decrease competition between commercial banks and discourage risky investment strategies, the banking Act of 1933 outlawed the payment of interest on checking accounts and also placed ceilings on the amount of interest that could be paid on other deposits.
which reached up to its current limit of 250,000. The 1933 Banking Act required all fdic-insured banks to be, or to apply to become, members of the federal Reserve system by july 1, 1934. The banking Act of 1935 extended that deadline to july 1, 1936. State banks were not eligible to be members of the federal Reserve system until they became stockholders of the fdic, and thereby became an insured institution. 11 1939 legislation repealed the requirement that fdic-insured banks join the federal Reserve system., the laws establishing the fdic and fdic insurance were part of the federal Reserve act. 1950 legislation created the federal Deposit Insurance Act (fdia). 13 The fdia is described in the article on the federal Deposit Insurance corporation. Separation of commercial and investment banking edit main article: GlassSteagall Act over time, the term GlassSteagall Act came to be used most often to refer to four provisions of the 1933 Banking Act that separated commercial banking from investment banking.
4, although the 1933. dark Banking Act thus fulfilled Congressional designs and, at least in its deposit insurance provisions, was resisted by the. Franklin Delano roosevelt Administration, it later became considered part of the. 5, the deposit insurance and many other provisions of the Act were criticized during Congressional consideration. 6, the entire Act was long-criticized for limiting competition and thereby encouraging an inefficient banking industry. 7, supporters of the Act cite it as a central cause for an unprecedented period of stability in the. Banking system during the ensuing four or, in some accounts, five decades following 1933. 8 9, contents, creation of fdic and federal deposit insurance edit, main article: Federal Deposit Insurance corporation The 1933 Banking Act established (1) the federal Deposit Insurance corporation (fdic (2) temporary fdic deposit insurance limited to 2,500 per accountholder starting January 1934 through June. 1934 legislation delayed the effectiveness of the permanent insurance system.
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The, banking Act of 1933 pub. 162, enacted June 16, 1933) was a statute enacted by the. United States Congress that established the, federal Deposit Insurance corporation (fdic) and imposed various other banking reforms. 1, the entire law is often referred to as the. GlassSteagall Act, after its Congressional sponsors, senator. Carter Glass d ) of, virginia, and Representative, henry. The term GlassSteagall Act, however, is most often used to refer to four provisions of the banking Act of 1933 that limited commercial bank securities activities and affiliations between commercial banks and securities firms. 2, that limited meaning of the term is described in the article. The banking Act of 1933 (the 1933 Banking Act) joined together two long-standing Congressional projects: (1) a federal system of bank deposit insurance championed by representative steagall 3 and (2) plan the regulation (or prohibition) of the combination of commercial and investment banking and other restrictions.