However, the target is permitted to submit responses to the stated reasons for recall. The minimum number of signatures and the time limit to qualify a recall vary among the states. In addition, the handling of recalls once they qualify differs. In some states, a recall triggers a simultaneous special election, where the vote on the recall, as well as the vote on the replacement if the recall succeeds, are on the same ballot. In the 2003 California recall election, over 100 candidates appeared on the replacement portion of the ballot. In other states, a separate special election is held writing after the target is recalled, or a replacement is appointed by the governor or some other state authority. 2011 recalls edit In 2011, there were at least 150 recall elections in the United States. Of these, 75 officials were recalled, and nine officials resigned under threat of recall.
Only two governors have ever been successfully recalled. In 1921, governor Lynn Frazier of North dakota, was recalled during a dispute about state-owned industries. In 2003, governor Gray davis of California was recalled over the state budget. Additionally, in 1988, a recall was approved against governor evan Mecham of Arizona, 11 but he was impeached and convicted restaurant before it got on the ballot. 12 In Alaska, georgia, kansas, minnesota, montana, rhode Island, and Washington, specific grounds are required for a recall. Some form of malfeasance or misconduct while in office must be identified by the petitioners. The target may choose to dispute the validity of the grounds in court, and a court then judges whether the allegations in the petition rise to a level where a recall is necessary. In the november 2010 general election, Illinois passed a referendum to amend the state constitution to allow a recall of the state's governor, in light of former governor Rod Blagojevich's corruption scandal. In the other eleven states that permit statewide recall, no grounds are required and recall petitions may be circulated for any reason.
9 This version of the recall involved one elected body removing another official. During the American revolution the Articles of Confederation stipulated that state legislatures might recall delegates from the continental Congress. 10 According to new York delegate john Lansing, the power was never exercised by any state. The virginia plan, issued at the outset of the Philadelphia convention of 1787, proposed to pair recall with rotation in office and to apply these dual principles to the lower house of the national legislature. The recall was rejected by the constitutional Convention. However, the anti-federalists used the lack of recall provision as a weapon in the ratification debates. Several states proposed adopting a recall for us senators in the years immediately following the adoption of the constitution. However, it did not pass.
Referendums by country - wikipedia
In addition, recall of municipal executives and legislatives is possible since 2011. Signatures of 10 of registered voters are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts either at the cantonal or municipal levels. The possibility of recall referendums (together with the popular election of executives, the initiative and the legislative referendum) was introduced into several cantonal constitutions after the 1860s in the course of a broad movement for democratic reform. The instrument has never been of any practical importance the few attempts at recall so far have failed, usually because the required number of signatures was not collected and it was abolished in the course of constitutional revisions in Aargau (1980 baselland (1984) and Lucerne. The only successful recall so far happened in the canton of Aargau in the year 1862. But the possibility of recalling municipal executives was newly introduced in Ticino in 2011, with 59 of voters in favor, as a reaction to the perceived problem of squabbling and dysfunctional municipal governments.
6 In taiwan, according to the Additional Articles of the constitution of the republic of China, the recall of the president or the vice president shall be initiated upon the proposal of one-fourth of all members of the legislative yuan, and also passed by two-thirds. The final recall must be passed by more than one-half of the valid ballots in a vote in which more than one-half of the electorate in the free area of the republic of China takes part. Ukraine edit a year after the 2015 Ukrainian local elections voters can achieve a recall election of an elected deputy or mayor if as many signatures as voters are collected. 8 United States edit submitting petitions bail for the recall of seattle, washington mayor Hiram Gill in December 1910; Gill was removed by a recall election the following February, but voters returned him to the office in 1914. Recall first appeared in Colonial America in the laws of the general court of the massachusetts bay colony in 1631.
There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive and legislative in 1995 (related to a banking scandal). Three further attempts failed to collect the necessary number of signatures (1887, 1961, 1973). Ticino : Recall of the executive is possible since 1892. 15,000 signatures (7 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful recall attempt in 1942.
In addition, recall of municipal executives is possible since 2011. Signatures of 30 of all adult citizens are required to trigger a recall referendum. Thurgau : Recall of the executive and legislative is possible since 1869. 20,000 signatures (13 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There have been no recall attempts. Uri : Recall of the executive and legislative is possible since 1888. Since signatures (3 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum.
Philippine executive and legislative powers referendum
This makes Peru the worlds most intensive user of this mechanism. Switzerland edit While recalls are not provided for at the federal level in Switzerland, six cantons allow them: 6 7 Bern : Recall of the executive essay and legislative is possible since 1846. 30,000 signatures (4 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 1852 Schatzgelder' affair). Schaffhausen : Recall of the executive and legislative is possible since 1876. 1,000 signatures (2 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum. There has been one unsuccessful attempt to recall the executive in 2000 triggered by the lawyer and cantonal mp gerold meier. Solothurn : Recall of the executive and legislative is possible since 1869. 6,000 signatures (3 of all adult citizens) are required to trigger a recall referendum.
The electors may not recall any individual member of the saeima. Philippines edit Article 10 of the constitution of the Philippines allows for the recall of local officials. The local government Code, as amended, enabled the provisions of the constitution to be task applied. Elected officials from provincial governors to the barangay councilors are allowed to be recalled. At least 25 of the electorate in a specific place must have their signatures verified in a petition in order for the recall to take place. 4 The president, vice president, members of Congress, and the elected officials of the autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao cannot be removed via recall. The last recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 puerto Princesa mayoral recall election. Recall regulations were introduced in Peru by the congreso constituyente democrático (Democratic Constituent Congress) which drafted a new constitution after Alberto fujimoris autogolpe in 1992. Between 19, more than 5000 recall referendums were activated against democratically elected authorities from 747 Peruvian municipalities (45.5 of all municipalities).
law 134 in 1994, until 2015, 161 attempts led 41 referendums and none of them succeeded since the threshold of participation was not reached. In 2015, a new law (303/2015) reduced the number of signatures required to activate a recall referendum (from 40 per cent to 30 per cent of the total of votes obtained by the elected authority) and the threshold (dropping from the 50 per cent. The change in the regulation, also quickening the registration of promoters, led to a considerable increase in the number of attempts. Article 14 of the. Constitution of Latvia enables the recall of the entire. Saiema, though not of specific representatives: Article 14 : Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the saeima. If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the saeima, then the saeima shall be deemed recalled. The right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the saeima, during the last six months of the.
The, legislative assembly of British Columbia enacted representative recall in 1995. In that province, voters in a provincial riding can petition to have their representative in parliament removed from office, even if that mla is also the premier. (Holding a seat in the legislature is not constitutionally necessary to be premier, however.) If enough registered voters sign the petition, the speaker of the legislature announces in parliament that the member has been make recalled and the lieutenant governor drops the writ for a by-election. By january 2003, 22 recall efforts had been launched. No one has been recalled so far, but one representative, paul reitsma, resigned in 1998 when it looked as if the petition to recall him would have enough signatures to spur a recall election. Reitsma resigned during the secondary verification stage and the recall count ended. Citation needed, colombia edit, in Colombia, the recall referendum was included by the constitution in 1991. The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as la séptima papeleta (the seventh ballot which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism, corruption and increasing citizenship apathy.
California ballot proposition - wikipedia
A recall election (also called a recall referendum or representative recall ) is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to ancient. Athenian democracy 1 and feature in several contemporary constitutions. In indirect or representative democracy people's representatives are elected and these representatives rule for a specific period of time. But if any representative comes to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities, then they can be called back with the written request of specific number or proportion of voters. Contents, argentina edit, the recall referendum arrived to latin America shortly after it introduction at the us subnational level, in 19, to cordoba and Entre ríos provinces, respectively, both in Argentina. There oliver recall is regulated at the provincial level in Chaco (introduced in 1957 Chubut (1994 córdoba (1923, 1987), corrientes (1960 la rioja (1986 rio negro (1988 santiago del Estero and tierra del fuego (1991 other provinces include it for their municipalities, namely, entre ríos (1933. It is also included in ciudad de buenos Aires (1996).